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Bacterial plaque, combined with other predisposing factors, is the primary cause of gingival inflammation. Calculus, malocclusion, defective restorations, orthodontic therapy difficulties, self-inflicted traumas, cigarette use, and radiation therapy are all risk factors. Defective dental restorations and prostheses contribute to gingival irritation and periodontal damage. Iatrogenic factors are ineffective dental procedures that contribute to periodontal tissue deterioration.