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The present study aimed to investigate the impact of health literacy on medication adherence in patients with renal condition. It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a positive and predictive relationship between health literacy and medication adherence in patients with renal condition. A total sample of (N= 120) including 52 men & 68 women, with age range 20 - 70 years. Patients were taken from Govt. and Private Kidney Wards and Centers through purposive sampling technique. Data was collected by using All Aspects of Health Literacy (AAHLS) (Chinn & McCarthy, 2013)to assess health literacy and Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-5) Bäck, et al., 2012 to measure medication adherence. Pearson Product Moment correlation and regression analysis were conducted for data analysis. Findings revealed that health literacy was positively correlated with medication adherence, while health literacy was a positive and significant predictor of medication adherence. The present study has explored the importance of a new area of expertise for doctors and health professionals as it was supported from the findings that health literacy has a positive effect on health outcomes of patients and; the importance of health literacy for medication adherence.