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Background: At the time of childbirth, Vitamin D plays an essential role in uterine contractions. Failure of adequate levels of vitamin D may delay uterine contractions (uterine atony), that lead to a maternal life threatening condition called Postpartum hemorrhage. Exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy leads to several adverse effects on mother and child.
Objective: To study the effect of cigarette smoking on Vitamin D levels during pregnancy and its fetal effects on uterine contractions leading to postpartum hemorrhage.
Study design: A retrospective Cohort Study
Place & Duration of Study: By the Departmentof Forensic Medicine Department, Khyber Medical College, Peshawar, at District Head Quarter Hospital, DD Khan Pakistan; from October 2019 to Mar 2020.
Methodology: In this study; 108 pregnant females were enrolled and 25(OH)D was measured at 36-38 weeks gestation in a cohort study at district headquarter hospital DG Khan (DHQH). Moreover, for data validity, secondary data collected from the record room of Obstetrics unit of DG Khan DHQH. The participants, divided into two equal groups i.e. with and without a previous history of exposure to tobacco smoking.The fasting blood samples collected along with tested serum calcium and 25(OH)D Levels.Finally, data was presented in form of tables.
Result:Vitamin D levels during 3rd trimester was 9.28 ± 2.19 ng/mlin exposed and 25.75 ± 5.26 ng/ml in non-exposed group (p > 0.05) in maternal serum. Our study indicated that smoking caused low level of vitamin D and insufficiency of vitamin D wasstrongly associated with uterine atony.
Conclusion: It was revealed that low vitamin D level showed strongly associated with uterine atony. Moreover, the low socioeconomic status showed significant association among the families both in urban and rural communities of DG Khan, Pakistan.