Assessment of Risk Factors of Covid-19 in Peshawar Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Study

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Muhammad Ishtiaq, Rashid Ahmad, Nadia Qazi, Adeela Mustafa Syed Shahmeer Raza, Danial Tahir, Muhammad Hakim, Said Akbar Khan


Background:The Covid-19 pandemic is spreading like a forest fire among the developed and developing countries. The epidemiology of Covid-19 is still unclear and the public health specialist is adding evidence day by day.

Objectives: To identify the risk factors of Covid-19 infection in Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Study Design: A descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

Place and Duration of Study:This study was conducted by the Department of Community Medicine North West School of Medicine, Hayatabad, Peshawar, with collaboration of Lady Ready Hospital, and Khyber Medical College, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan; from November 2020 to May 2021.

Methodology:A sample size of 139 was selected based upon 10% prevalence with 95% confidence interval with 5% prevision. A comprehensive structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the selected individuals regarding the demographics and risk factors of Covid-19 infection.

Results:Of 139 Covid-19 cases; 117(84.27%) were male, 57.55% had age above 40 years, 54% had monthly income of less than 30, 000 PKR, 35.97% were unemployed, and 34.53% were illiterate. Regarding BMI status; 17.27 % were overweight and 32.37% were obese. 41.01% had positive tobacco smoking history and only 16.55% had substance abuse. 81% of Covid-19 cases reported that they got infection from the interaction with close contacts; and 94.24% has received information regarding the benefits of PPEs. Only 32.37% know the routes of transmission of Covid-19; and 12.23% reported that social gatherings are responsible for getting Covid-19. Moreover, 15.83% and 25.90% of Covid-19 are not using face masks before and after Covid-19 infection respectively; whereas the hand hygiene compliance increased from 67.63% to 84.89% respectively for before and after getting Cvoid-19. The most common symptoms among Covid-19 cases were fever, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, myalgia, and abnormal smell etc. 75.54% considered quarantine and only 29.50% revealed isolation as  protective measures against Covid-19. Furthermore, 82.73% revealed contact with Covid-19 positive case, 42.45% with suspected case, and 30.22% reported contact with recovered Covid-19 case.

Conclusion:The Covid-19 infection showed strong relationship with age, gender, socio-economic, important determinants like chronic co-morbidities, obesity, tobacco smoking, PPEs knowledge, health information, and supplements intake, and thus comprehensive preventive and promotive strategies are needed to prioritize the vulnerable communities to reduce the spread and transmission of Covid-19 along with coordination and cooperation from all stakeholders.

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Syed Shahmeer Raza, Danial Tahir, Muhammad Hakim, Said Akbar Khan, M. I. R. A. N. Q. A. M. (2021). Assessment of Risk Factors of Covid-19 in Peshawar Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Study. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 25(7), 669–686. Retrieved from