Main Article Content
Increasing the world population and exposure of diseases haveattractedthe expansion of efficient new vaccines to fight many diseases. Traditional vaccines are being used throughout the world, but it has many limitations such as high-cost production and time-consuming. Hence, the idea of plant-based vaccine technology has emerged which has shown positive results with powerful and effective protection against many diseases. This technology is based on the insertion of the encoded protein with the desired gene for the specific disease into the plant genome by several methods. The most common method for the production of vaccines by plant is Agrobacterium mediated gene transformation which is genetically modified with plant viruses and used to generate plant vaccines. With the enhancement of technology, new methods were developed which include electroporation, sonication, agrofilteration, gene gun, biolistic method, and polyethylene glycol treatment (PEG). This technology of producing edible vaccines comes up with many benefits but, there are still some obstacles in the development of 3rd generation vaccines. Besides all these, progressive steps are taken to produce effective vaccines against human and animal-associated diseases. In this review article, we are focusing on the production and challenges vaccines by plants.