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The aim of our review is to know the virulence factors for a gram-positive coccus that appears to grow in chains is Streptococcus pyogenes. The cause of many serious human diseases, ranging from pharyngitis and mild superficial skin infections to life-threatening systemic diseases, is S. pyogenes. Usually, infections begin in the throat or the skin. Pharyngitis (strep throat) and localized skin infections include Mild S. pyogenes infections (impetigo). Erysipelas and cellulitis are characterized by S. pyogenes multiplication and lateral dissemination in deeper skin layers.¬†Invasion and fascial involvement of S. pyogenes can lead to necrotizing fasciitis, a life-threatening condition. In children with fever, scarlet fever is characterized by a sandpaper-like rash and is caused by a streptococcal toxin. High mortality is associated with severe infections which lead to septicemia or toxic shock syndrome. Characteristic syndromes including rheumatic fever and nephritis are caused by autoimmune reactions.¬†The disease of S. pyogenes is readily treatable because penicillin is invariably responsive to the organism. Significant mortality and morbidity are associated with delayed treatment of this widespread childhood pathogen.