Main Article Content
Numerous studies have shown that dental diseases in athletes occupy a leading position compared to any other, and it is explained, of course, by their greatest prevalence. [1,2] At the same time, the conducted studies indicate the extreme importance of the somatological link in the system of medical support for athletes.As you know, intense physical activity leads to an increase in almost all dental diseases. The main reason for the increase in the frequency of dental morbidity in athletes is exorbitant physical, including: competitive, as well as psycho-emotional overstrain, suppressing both the local immunity of the cavity and the general reactivity of the body [6,7]. This, in turn, is complicated by a violation of protein and electrolyte metabolism, a shift in the acid-base balance in relation to metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis. Reaction data in combination with depression of immunity leads to vozrastaniyu the acidity of the saliva, creating conditions for the demineralization of tooth enamel, increased microbial metabolism of the mouth, sensitization, reduction of blood flow in sunnycheetah due to its improvement in working bodies [3,4].An important factor leading to an increase in dental morbidity in athletes [1,7] is the predominance of oral respiration during intensive training loads. A study conducted at rsufksit within the framework of the athletes ' health monitoring program identified 380 athletes of various specializations aged 17-23 years with the presence of caries out of 1587, which was 24%. The study included athletes of cyclic, game sports and representatives of martial arts. Caries of the contact (approximal) surfaces and significantly anterior-cervical caries were mainly observed. Almost all stages were present:spot stage, superficial caries, medium caries, and deep caries. A number of factors affecting the development of caries in athletes were also studied, including diet, assessment of local dental protection, socio-economic factors and the role of traumatic dental lesions. There is a particular negative effect of excessive physical exertion on periodontal tissues [2,4], to the extent that athletes with undetected periodontal pathologies experienced bleeding gums after intensive training.Periodontal pathology in athletes is more often represented by gingivitis and periodontitis, and it is most common among athletes engaged in water and winter sports,the least among those engaged in power and game sports.An interesting fact is the almost complete absence of periodontal disease in athletes. Apparently, it is explained by the young age of the athletes of the population. The absence of pain syndrome is often one of the features of the course of oral diseases in athletes, which leads to untimely sanitation of the oral cavity and chronization of odontogenic foci. This type of damage often occurs without symptoms and leads to the occurrence of not only periodontal diseases, but also functional functional disorders in the form of hypertonus of the masticatory muscles of the maxillofacial region, dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint, increased erasability of hard tooth tissues, the formation of wedge-shaped defects.In this regard, there is a need to increase the role of prevention of major dental diseases in athletes engaged in cyclic sports, by developing a rational set of measures and means, aimed at improving the quality of life and the level of dental health in this category of persons.
Currently, it is proved that timely prevention of pathological conditions of the dental system can ensure the preservation of the quality of life and health. Based on the above, the purpose of this study was to assess the level of dental morbidity of athletes engaged in cyclic sports, and to develop methods for its effective prevention.