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Tooth wear is an evolving dental public health problem. The alarming rate of tooth wear has been observed in children and young adults. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and to identify potential risk factors of tooth wear among undergraduate science students of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh state, India. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 Bachelor of Science students of Jabalpur city. The data were collected using a questionnaire and clinical examination. The clinical examination for tooth wear was carried out according to Smith and Knight’s Tooth Wear Index. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s chi-square test and logistic regression were applied for data analysis. The Prevalence of tooth wear was 40.50%. Higher odds of tooth wear were observed among males, hard bristle toothbrush users, tooth brushing with the horizontal method, students with parafunctional habits, tobacco chewers, the habit of eating citrus fruits every day, drinking carbonated beverages every day and anxious students compared to their counterparts. In conclusion, the prevalence of tooth wear is high among undergraduate science students of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, India. The male students are at more risk. The incisors are most prone to tooth wear.