Main Article Content
Prevalence and mortality rate due to non-communicable diseases has been increasing over a past decade. Sedentary life style or physical inactivity is considered as a high risk factor for development of about 35 types of chronic diseases and reduced life expectancy. Scientific evidence shows that regular exercise has beneficial effects on disease prevention, management of pre symptomatic disease and to stop further progression of disease. Until the discovery of irisin in 2012, the beneficial effects of exercise was attributed to peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ(PPARγ). Bostrom et al reported that exercise upregulates the expression of a transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1- α) in skeletal muscles. PGC1- α cleaves fibronectin type III domain containing 5( FNDC 5) and releases irisin into circulation. Since then research is going on to know the beneficial effects of irisin. Few studies explained the effects of irisin on glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, hypertension, fight against obesity, bone mineral density and immunity. Few scientists raised doubts regarding the existence of irsin and its role in metabolism and beneficial effects. In this review, we summarised the controversies regarding synthesis, release, effect of various types of exercise on irisin levels and physiological actions of Irisin.