Mouth Breathing in Pediatric Population: A Literature Review

Main Article Content

Harun Achmad, Ainun Widyasari Ansar


Introduction: Breathing is a vital function of the human body, usually carried out through the nose. Breathing through the mouth instead of through the nose is considered an abnormal breathing habit. Mouth breathing refers to the state of inhaling and exhaling through the mouth. Mouth breathing is also an etiological factor for respiratory distress during childhood sleep. Both habit and obstruction can lead to facial muscle imbalance and craniofacial changes.

Objective: This article aims to review the basics of mouth breathing

Method: The search was carried out using online databases from Google Scholar and Pubmed. Articles included were articles published from 2014 to 2021. The keywords and terms used for the search for the article were as follows: mouth breathing ”,“ mouth breathing syndrome ”,“ mouth breathing in children ”,“ Children ” , “Pediatrics”.

Results: There were 19 articles that discussed matters related to the introduction of mouth breathing in children

Conclusion: Mouth breathing can be categorized into 3 types based on the etiology. The etiology and risk factors for mouth breathing are nasal obstruction, adenoids, and children who are not exclusively breastfed. Mouth breathing is characterized by many symptoms, some of which are class II relations, maxillary incisor protrusion, long face and others. This habit is diagnosed through a comprehensive history and several tests. The management generally includes the use of oral screens and may also be surgical to correct the cause of the obstruction.

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How to Cite
Harun Achmad, Ainun Widyasari Ansar. (2021). Mouth Breathing in Pediatric Population: A Literature Review. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 25(6), 4431–4455. Retrieved from