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Freshwater crabs belong to the largest group of invertebrates. They areecologically as well as economically important owing to their role in nutrient recycling, water quality monitoring and small-scale fisheries. They have recorded their presence in nearly all freshwater habitats ranging from streams emerging from mountains or highland to large rivers along with all water bodies in the land. The past few decades, there has been an upsurge of attention in the use of freshwater crabs as an ecological model for assessing impact of various environmental stress and pollutant in the rivers. A number of studies have showed that various chemical pollutant and pesticides have affected the population structure of the crabs in the Godavari basin. This has resulted in a steep decrease in the populations of the crabs in the region.The present investigation was undertaken to study the ecological stress on the crab species Barytelphusa guerini in the Godavari river basin and its tributaries along with systematic survey in the river basin and also on the river bank. Then here suggested some fact findings and action plan proposed for conservation of the species for future in the river basin.