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Background: Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) spreads locally and metastasizes in the different routes of lymph nodes. This chronic disease is a public health problem both in developing as well as developed countries. The present study was conducted to assess apoptotic index in various grades of oral epithelial dysplasia.
Materials & Methods: 60 histopathologically diagnosed cases of hyperkeratosis with varying degree of dysplasia and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinomas of both genders were included. The apoptotic cells ratio was evaluated as: Apoptotic Index (AI) = Total no. of apoptotic cells/ Total no. of cells in 10 HPF.
Results: The mean dysplasia in normal cells was 0.0014, mild dysplasia was 0.003, moderate dysplasia was 0.005, severe dysplasia was 0.013 and no dysplasia was 0.002. The mean difference of different grades in normal cells was 0.014, in well differentiated SCC was 0.018, in moderately differentiated SCC was 0.016 and in poorly differentiated SCC was 0.002. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Authors found the clinical significance of apoptosis in assessing disease progression in oral potentially malignant disorders.