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It is well known that patients undergoing Hemodialysis (HD) , are at high risk for contracting viral infections. This is due to their underlying impaired cellular immunity, which increases their susceptibility to infection. In addition, the HD needs blood exposure to infectious materials through the extracorporeal circulation for a prolonged period.This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of HBsAg and anti HCV Ab and to find out risk factor for transmission of HBV and HCV infection in patients undergoing HD in Ad Diwaniyah teaching hospital.A total of 216 patients undergoing regular HD in Adiwaniyah teaching hospital were investigated from 1st March 2018 to 31st November 2018.The patients who included in this study consist of (110 males and 106 female) with age ranging from (16-86) years and The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 51.89 (±15.54) years. Clinical data such as age, gender, duration of dialysis, frequency of dialysis per week, number of blood transfusion were noted. Blood samples were collected from each patient, Serum was tested for HBsAg and anti HCV Ab.