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Context:The most common malignancy of oral cavity is the squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Macrophages function in wound healing, helping in cell growth, angiogenesis and tissue matrix remodelling and have a role in tissue repair, development, homeostasis and immunity. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been suggested to function in tumour cell proliferation, tumour cell migration & invasion, and tumour angiogenesis. The cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage in normal and pathologic conditions can be identified by CD68.
Aims:To quantify the immunohistochemical expression of CD68 in Oral squamous cell carcinoma and correlate it with different grades of OSCC and TNM staging
Settings and Design: A cross-sectional Observational study
Methods and Material:The study population comprised of biopsies obtained from 40 cases of OSCC graded according to Bryne’s grading and 20 cases of normal oral mucosa. 5µm thick sections were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal mouse antihuman antibody CD68. Mean number of CD 68 positive stained cells were counted.
Statistical analysis used: Statistical tests used in the study were Students unpaired t test, One way ANOVA, Chi-square Test, Neuman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test, Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis
Results:Using student’s unpaired t test, a statistically significant difference was observed in mean CD68 count in the Control Group (31.38 ± 26.60) and the OSCC Group (200.53 ± 74.13). One way ANOVA test showed statistically significant difference in CD68 count in the three histological grades of OSCC (132.60 ± 34.45, 222.16 ± 40.03 and 293.16 ± 56.75 in Grade I, II & III respectively). One way ANOVA test showed a statistically significant difference in CD68 count in all TNM stages of OSCC patients.
Conclusions: TAMs were heterogeneously detected in OSCC and their presence was higher in tumours with advanced grade of OSCC and TNM stage. TAMs are associated with creation of a permissive environment for tumour invasion in OSCC.