Books of Bukhara Emirate Scribes and Their Copied Manuscripts

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Kholnazarova Latofat Samievna, Inatov Murot Niyatovich


This article provides information about the secretaries and calligraphers who lived and worked in the Bukhara Emirate in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the creation and preservation of manuscripts in their traditional book art, calligraphers, paper masters, ink makers, painters. In addition, in the creation of manuscripts, the work of paper cutters, calligraphers, gilders, tablets, tablet writers, miniature artists, painters and bookbinders, skilled calligraphers copied religious, folk books, prayers, various pamphlets in different writing styles.

            After gaining the independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the study of the great history and great spiritual heritage of the Uzbek people has become one of the pressing issues of history.  After all, the restoration of historical memory and spiritual heritage is of particular importance as one of the most important factors in the national self-consciousness of the nation and its spiritual and moral development.

First President of the Republic of Uzbekistan I.A.  Karimov said: "Historical memory is an important part of the process of reviving the honest and just history of the people, the motherland, and the territory of our state, understanding the national identityandif you wish, the national pride."  From this point of view, it is necessary to study the history of calligraphy in preserving historical memory, its transmission from generation to generation.

Libraries, book arts, and publishing, which have coincided with human civilization, have evolved over the centuries. Today, they play an important role in preserving the pearls of spiritual heritage that are the product of human consciousness and thinking.

There are more than 100,000 manuscripts in the book collections of Uzbekistan.  Most of them are included in the UNESCO Cultural Heritage List.  Manuscripts transmitted by the Bukhara calligraphers constitute the "gold fund" of libraries in Europe and Asia, Great Britain, Germany, Spain, Russia, France, Egypt, India, Iran and many other countries.  These are manuscripts based on the work of calligraphers.  Therefore, the unique works copied by calligraphers are the spiritual property of the whole humanity, not one nation or people.  It is a priceless treasure, a source of wisdom and knowledge for new generations. Our main task is to use this rich heritage, which has reached our days, wisely and effectively for the benefit of all mankind.

In this article, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, In Bukhara emirate,scribes and calligrapers provided informationon specialists,who raised to the level of art, such as calligraphers, paper makers,ink makers, ornamentalists.In addition, in the creation of manuscript books, it is noted that the work of paper cutter,calligraphers, gilders,artists and binders, and transcribers as well asthe use of professional calligraphers in religious, folk books, prayers and various brochures.

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Kholnazarova Latofat Samievna, Inatov Murot Niyatovich. (2021). Books of Bukhara Emirate Scribes and Their Copied Manuscripts. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 3173–3183. Retrieved from