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Health care associated infections are now drawing attention from patients, insurers, governments , health care personnels and regulatory bodies to prevent spread of infection by direct or indirect contact . This is not only due to the range of problems in terms of the related morbidity and mortality, the cost of treatment, but also due to the recognition that most of these can be prevented. The medical community is witnessing unprecedented advancements in understanding pathophysiology of infectious diseases and the global spread of multidrug resistant infections in health care set-ups and among the public. These factors, compounded by the availability of new antimicrobials have necessitated a re-look into the role of basic practices of infection prevention in modern day health care. There is clear evidence that strict protocol to hand hygiene practices reduces the risk of cross-transmission of infections. “Clean Care is Safer Care” , a prime agenda of the global initiative of WHO on patient safety programmes, it is time the developing countries formulate the required policies for implementation of infection prevention practices in health care set-ups. This review focuses on one of the simplest and basic , low cost but yet the least accepted from infection prevention: hand hygiene.