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In latent infections , overt disease is not produced but the virus is not completely eradicated. Latency can be defined as a persistent infection with reservoirs that fail to produce infectious virus but are capable of reactivating to repeat the infection cycle. The main feature of this persistence is the failure of host immune response in the elimination of such viruses.Viral latent infections have numerous pathogenesis associated with birth defects, cancers, chronic inflammation, and immunological dysfunctions. Several external factors such as stress,environmental triggers play an important role in the reactivation of viruses .The mechanisms controlling the latency are complex and diversified among virus families, species, and strains. Vaccines are most effective in controlling the viral infections but are active only on the reactivation of the lytic phase.In this review properties of latency, latency viral infections, reactivation can be defined. Eradicating latent virus has become an important but elusive challenge and will require a more complete understanding of the mechanisms controlling these processes and it is essential in developing future therapeutic drugs against viral infection and subsequent disease.