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Background: major features of Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) are different hormonal and menstrual abnormalities manifested as anovulation, infertility, and hyper-androgenic state. Hypothyroidism shares a similar clinical picture, because of accompanied hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) low levels. In addition to that, enlarged ovarian mass with cystic changes have also been noted in hypothyroidism. Despite of the fact that both diseases have different etiopathology , yet thyroid problems are more common in PCOS patients
Objectives: to assess a status of anti- thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies in patients having PCOS. And to estimate the effect of low thyroid function on different biochemical (e.g. lipid profile) and clinical parameters in PCOS.
Subjects and Methods: Case control study on PCOS and its relationship to thyroid and lipids ,ninety five (95)patients included in this study where 50 patients with PCOS age range (25.3±4.6 years) and 45 healthy subject age range (24.2 ± 5.2 years) ,since August 2019 up to February 2020 enrolled in this research.
Results: concerning thyroid function study, significantly higher TSH (4.99 ± 3.6) in PCOS group compared to controls (2.6 ± 2.9) (p< 0.0001) and higher anti-TPO antibodies (66.88 ± 26.1) in PCOS group compared to controls (22.24 ± 13.3) ( P< 0.01) levels and significantly lower T3 (2.77 ± 1.1) in PCOS group compared to controls (4.01 ± 0.3) (P=0.046) levels. Concerning T4 levels, they were slightly lower in patients with PCOS (1.13 ± 3.1 ng/dl) in comparison to controls (1.01 ± 2.2 ng/dl) that the results are considered to be statistically non-significant difference.
About Lipid profile, total cholesterol level in PCOS (239 ± 28.9) was higher if compared to control group (168 ± 21.3), TG level in PCOS (120 ± 20.3) was higher compared to control (76.7 ± 10.2), and LDL in PCOS (133 ± 18.8) obviously was (significantly) higher than control group (108 ± 21.3), while HDL (38.1 ± 15.9) of patients with PCOS obviously (significantly) lower than control subjects (54.3 ± 7.7).
Conclusions : PCOS incidence in patients with thyroid disorders is much higher than healthy individuals. Specifically , hypertension and dyslipidemia, are much greater in patients with PCOS in comparison to healthy individuals. Furthermore, dyslipidemia and hypertension are even greater in patients having both PCOS and hypothyroidism than non- PCOS individuals. A greater level of anti-TPO antibodies in PCOS group than in controls .