Biosafety and Bio-security level in some Ramadi City Hospitals and Evaluation of The Pathogenic Environmental Impact of Its Sewage Water Effluents

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Omar Lateef Jumaa, Sufyan Mohammed Shartooh


   Pathogenic microorganisms present in different environments pose a major health risk to human societies, as the wastewater flowing from hospitals is an ideal environment for pathogenic microorganisms that are resistant to different conditions, and thus create a new generation of such microorganisms difficult to deal with and transmit their harmful effects to all society individuals. The study aims to determine the level of bacterial contamination of wastewater flowing from some hospitals in Ramadi City - Iraq, and to find the relationship of similarity between environmental bacterial isolates and pathological isolates for recumbent patients, and thus determine the level of biosafety procedures followed, as well as study the effect of some physical and chemical factors on the present of these bacteria. Physical and chemical examinations included some variables such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), pH, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), and Nitrate NO3). Additionally, the isolating and diagnosing of 100 bacterial genes using biochemical tests and confirming them using the VITEC 2 compact system device. Also, the genetic fingerprint of some isolated bacterial species was studied using ERIC-PCR technique and Dendrogram program to find the similarity relationship between environmental isolates and pathological isolates of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia, where 60 samples were collected from sewage water, and 60 samples were collected from patients of the Women's and Children's Hospital, and the Ramadi Teaching Hospital for the period from September 2020 to November 2020 in the Ramadi City (Anbar Governorate-Iraq) The results showed the contamination of wastewater with many pathological bacterial types, and the results of the tests (BOD, pH, Temp, EC, TDS, NO3) included high values in the study area whose rates were (42.25 ppm, 7.32, 22 ° C, 2520.75 µs / cm, 1755.25 ppm, 0.34 ppm) respectively. As for the genetic fingerprint tests for E. coli and K. pneumonia bacteria isolated from different environments, the statistical analysis of the Dendrogram program indicated a similarity rate of 63% for E. coli and 48% for K. pneumonia for both samples isolated from wastewater and from inpatients using ERIC-PCR technique. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study revealed that the wastewater is highly contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, the majority of which are from infected patients lying in the hospital, which indicates the poor safety and bio-security procedures followed in the studied hospitals, which negatively affected the quality of the resulting wastewater from these hospitals.

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Omar Lateef Jumaa, Sufyan Mohammed Shartooh. (2021). Biosafety and Bio-security level in some Ramadi City Hospitals and Evaluation of The Pathogenic Environmental Impact of Its Sewage Water Effluents. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 132–146. Retrieved from