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Background: Infectious diseases of farm animals are one of the major threats to agriculture resulting in a considerable damage in both industrialized and developing countries.
Aim: This study was aimed to detect the most prevalent viral diseases among field animals including cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and camels of Wasit province (Iraq) during the year of 2022 based on clinical data.
Materials and methods: A broad clinical data investigation was carried out from several private clinics located at the main districts in Wasit province to know the most prevalent viral diseases in field animals based on number of diagnosed, treated and vaccinated animals. Results: Clinical data obtained from of totally 433072 animals revealed that 22.63%, 77.36% and 0.01% of study cattle and buffaloes, sheep and goats, as well as camels, respectively were diagnosed to be infected clinically with viral diseases. However, prevalence rate of FMD was increased significantly in FMD (55.68%) compared to Pox (28.81%), LSD (6.25%), PPR (5.58%) and BEF (2.64%), Orf (1.01%) and MCF (0.029%). Additionally, FMD was significantly found in cattle and buffaloes (60.59%) as well as in sheep and goats (54.25%) but not in camels that infected clinically with PPR (100%). For FMD, there were significant increases in sheep and goats (75.37%) when compared to cattle and buffaloes (24.63%) as well as camels (0%). Concerning of LSD, MCF and BEF, significant higher prevalence rates were reported in cattle and buffaloes in comparison with the findings of sheep and goats as well as camels. In sheep and goats, prevalence rate of Orf (100%), PPR (99.87%) and Pox (100%) were elevated significantly; while in cattle and buffaloes, no positive findings were identified. However, positive results of PPR were detected in camels (0.13%).
Conclusion: For our knowledge, this represents the first Iraqi study aimed to confirm the most prevalent viral diseases in field animals. Based on our data, applied methods for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of viral diseases remain limited and need to more potential activities to avoid severe economic losses caused by these diseases.