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The potential advantages of pressure-controlled versus volume-controlled ventilation during laparoscopic surgery have not yet been established yet in the previous literature. In this regard, 42 patients with a BMI of 30 kg.m2 who were scheduled to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to pressure- or volume-controlled ventilation. Compared to volume-controlled ventilation, pressure-controlled ventilation resulted in a significant decrease in peak airway pressure at 10 and 30 minutes (p = 0.003 and 0.014, respectively) and an increase in mean airway pressure at 10 minutes (10.50 (0.8) vs 9.61 (1.2) cmH2O). Similarly, there occurred gas exchange and hemodynamic stability. For non-obese people undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, we conclude that pressure-controlled ventilation is a safe alternative to volume-controlled ventilation.