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Background: Acetaminophen is certainly a drug of choice globally and in all age groups for fever, and aches. With a narrow therapeutic window any individual taking the drug is a vulnerable to its toxic effects. This study was designed to determine the short term and long term renal effects of one single toxic dose.
Methods:27 male albino mice were procured and housed in appropriate environment in the animal house. Animals were randomly divided into three equal groups. Group A mice served as a control and was dissected on day ten. Group B and C mice were injected acetaminophen (600mg/kg) intraperitoneally and were sacrificed after 48 hours and on tenth day respectively. Both the kidneys were collected afterwards for microscopic examination and blood samples were drawn for biochemical analysis.
Results: Renal tubular features (brush border loss, necrosis, luminal cast and vacuolations) were significantly affected among the experimental groups B & C as compared to the control group (p-value ≤ 0.05). Renal glomerular features (Basement membrane & necrosis) were unaffected in all the groups. Among the renal interstitial features, mesangeal hyper cellularity and vascular congestion were significant among the experimental groups (p-value ≤ 0.05) while interstitial inflammation was non-significantly higher in the experimental groups (p-value = 0.071). These pathological features were milder in group C animals.
Conclusions: Acetaminophen overdose causes acute tubular necrosis and abrupt impairment in serum urea and creatinine levels. The intensity of both of these parameters reduces with time suggestive of spontaneous self-recovery.