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Objective: Aim of current study is to assess the diseases of the thyroid gland have a predictive effect on the clinical severity of COVID-19.
Study Design: The current Prospective Study was carried out in Khyber Medical University (KMU) from Jan 2021-November 2021.
Methods: One hundred and fifty patients of both genders were presented in this study. Ages of the patients were between 25-80 years. All patients provided informed written consent for the collection of detailed demographic information, including age, gender; body mass index, residency, educational status, and socio-economic status. All the patients were undergone for PCR test for the confirmation of pandemic disease. Patients were categorized into two equal groups, I and II. Seventy five (75) symptomatic patients were included in group I and group II had 75 asymptomatic cases. It was determined whether the subjects had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid peroxidase antibody, or thyroglobulin antibody in their blood. We used SPSS 22.0 edition to analyze complete data.
Results: Ninety (90) patients (45 in each group) were males and the rest 60 patients were females. 51.32 ± 4.19 years was the mean age in group I with mean body mass index26.13±13.23 kg/m2 and in group II mean age was 49.45±23.77 years with mean BMI 25.11±9.44 kg/m2. 32 (42.7%) and 35 (46.7%) cases had urban residency in group I and II respectively. 29 (38.9%) patients were literate in group I and in group II 33 (44%) cases were educated. Majority of the patients among both groups had poor socio-economic status 52 (69.3%) in I and 49 (65.3%) in II. In group I majority of the patients 43 (57.3%) cases had severity of disease and in group II 18 (24%) patients had severe infection. Comparing the results of group I patients to those of group II, it was found that group I patients had considerably lower blood levels of free thyroxine (FT4) as well as blood levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3). Frequency of overt thyroid disorder was significantly higher in group I found in 9 (12%) as compared to group II 4 (5.3%). We found 18 (24%) cases in group I had thyroid nodules size>1cm while in group II 8 (10.7%) had nodule size >1cm. Mortality in group I was significantly higher with p value <0.05.
Conclusion: This study came to the conclusion that overt thyroid hormonal abnormalities were more prevalent in severely ill COVID-19 patients. It is possible that the FT3 level at the time of hospital admission is a prognostic indicator in COVID-19 patients. Symptoms of severe COVID-19 disease may include thyroid nodules.