Main Article Content
Periodontal disease (PD) is a frequently occurring infectious and inflammatory disease characterized by tissue inflammation and destruction resulting in tooth loss. The primary etiology of the disease is the periodontopathic bacteria present in plaque biofilm and counteracting innate and adaptive immune responses in periodontal tissues. Calprotectin is a calcium-binding protein that in recent days is considered as an acute phase reactant, belonging to the S-100 protein family. The protein is found to be secreted in higher concentrations by activated granulocytes, monocytes, and epithelial cells. Calprotectin has been shown to play an important role in numerous chronic inflammatory systemic diseases. Accumulating evidences indicates that the protein is increasingly involved in the progression of periodontal disease, and its levels might be allied with disease progression, severity and outcome of periodontal treatments. This review emphasies on the history, evolution and role of calprotectin in various inflammatory systemic disorders and periodontal disease indicating it as an effective prognostic and diagnostic marker.