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Toll‐like receptors (TLRs) are germline‐encoded receptors that are central to innate and adaptive immune responses. Owing to their vital role in inflammation, TLRs are rational targets in clinics; thus, many ligands and biologics have been reported to overcome the progression of various inflammatory and malignant conditions and support the immune system. For each TLR, at least one, and often many, drug formulations are being evaluated. Ligands reported as stand‐alone drugs may also be reported based on their use in combinatorial therapeutics as adjuvants. Despite their profound efficacy in TLR‐modulation in preclinical studies, multiple drugs have been terminated at different stages of clinical trials. Here, TLR modulating drugs that have been evaluated in clinical trials are discussed, along with their mode of action, suggestive failure reasons,andwaystoimprovetheclinicaloutcomes.Thisreview presents recent advances in TLR‐targeting drugs and provides directions for more successful immune system manipulation.